Ignatia Bintang Filia Dei Susilo



Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) and Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs) increased significantly. One of the most prominent PTA negotiation is Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (RCEP). When making arrangements, countries should consider its effect on current trade pattern. This research studies comparative advantage and its pattern for 10 countries involved in RCEP (Australia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand) plus India. This study uses Revealed Symmetric Comparative Advantage (RSCA) to examine trade data from 2004-2019. The findings are: (i) Comparative advantages between some RCEP member countries’ plus India are relative similar. It should be a concern for those countries to maintain their product’s competitiveness; (ii) Several countries show relevance on the trade theories that country will export products which use abundant factors in its production. These conditions also match the theory of comparative advantage which stated that countries will export product which have comparative advantages and become specialized on those products; and (iii) All countries (except China) have concentration on the products with low comparative advantage. The standard deviation of RSCA scores remains constant overtime showing that difference in comparative advantages in each countries remain constant, but indicate slight downward trend for India, in which indicates despecialization.

Keywords: RCEP, RSCA, Comparative Advantage, Economics Integration, International Trade.


Jumlah Perjanjian Perdagangan Regional (Regional Trade Agreements/RTA) dan Perjanjian Perdagangan Preferensial (Preferential Trade Agreements/PTAs) meningkat signifikan. Salah satu negosiasi PTA yang terbesar adalah Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (RCEP). Dalam suatu perjanjian perdagangan, penting untuk mempertimbangkan pola perdagangan negara-negara yang terlibat. Penelitian ini mempelajari keunggulan komparatif dan pola perdagangan untuk 10 negara yang terlibat dalam RCEP (Australia, China, Indonesia, Jepang, Korea, Malaysia, Selandia Baru, Filipina, Singapura, Thailand) dan India. Penelitian ini menggunakan Revealed Symmetric Comparative Advantage (RSCA) untuk menguji data perdagangan tahun 2004-2019. Diperoleh bahwa: (i) Keunggulan komparatif antara beberapa negara anggota RCEP serta India relatif sama. Dengan demikian, penting bagi negara-negara tersebut untuk menjaga daya saing produknya; (ii) Beberapa negara menunjukkan relevansi dengan teori perdagangan bahwa negara tersebut akan mengekspor produk yang menggunakan faktor yang melimpah dalam produksinya. Kondisi ini juga sesuai dengan teori keunggulan komparatif yang menyatakan bahwa negara akan mengekspor produk yang memiliki keunggulan komparatif dan menjadi spesialis pada produk tersebut; dan (iii) Semua negara (kecuali China) memiliki konsentrasi pada produk dengan keunggulan komparatif rendah. Standar deviasi dari nilai RSCA relatif konstan sepanjang waktu menunjukkan konsistensi pola spesialisasi keunggulan komparatif di masing-masing negara terdapat sedikit pola penurunan untuk India, yang mengindikasikan terjadinya despesialisasi.

Kata Kunci: RCEP, RSCA, Keunggulan Komparatif, Integrasi Ekonomi, Perdagangan Internasional.

Full Text:



Balassa, B. (1965). “Trade Liberalisation and “Revealed” Comparative Advantage”, The Manchester School, 33(2), 99-123.

Bano, S., Yoshiaki T., and Frank S. 2013. “ASEAN-New Zealand Trade Relations And Trade Potential: Evidence and Analysis”, Journal of Economic Integration, 2013 (28), 144-182.

Burange, L. G., & Chaddha, S. J. (2008). “India’s Revealed Comparative Advantage in Merchandise Trade”’ Artha Vijnana, 50(4), 332-363.

Chaisse, J., & Pomfret, R. (2019). “The RCEP and the Changing Landscape of World Trade”, Law and Development Review, 12(1), 159-190.

Chakravarty, S., and Ranajit C. (2014). “A Gravity Model Approach to Indo-Asean Trade Fluctuations and Swings”, Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2014 (133), 383-391.

Francis, S. (2010). “A Sectoral Impact Analysis of the ASEAN-India Free Trade Agreement”. CDS-CWS-IIFT-RIS National Seminar on ASEAN India Free Trade Agreement and Way Forward.

Fredayani, E., & Nurfiansyah, R. M. O. (2020). “Urgency of The Establishment Of The Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) Cooperation Forum For ASEAN”, The Transformation of Global Challenges on Humanity Issues, 283.

Hsieh, P. L. (2017). “The RCEP: New Asian Regionalism and the Global South’.

Itakura, K. (2014). “Impact of Liberalization and Improved Connectivity and Facilitation in ASEAN”, Journal of ASEAN Economics, 2014 (35), 2-11.

Jain, M. (2020). “Revealed Comparative Advantage Index: an Analysis of Te From Indian Perspective”, Academy of Marketing Studies Journal, 24(4), 1-7.

Laursen, K. (1998). “Revealed Comparative Advantage and The Alternatives as Measures of International Specialization”, DRUID Working Paper, No. 98-30, Danish Research Unit for Industrial Dynamics (DRUID).

Laursen, K. (2015). “Revealed Comparative Advantage and The Alternatives as Measures of International Specialization”, Eurasian Business Review, 5(1), 99-115.

Lombok, L. L. (2021). “Preferential Trade Agreements and Its Impact to International Trade Law Policy of Indonesia: A Study of The Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership”, HISPISI: Himpunan Sarjana Ilmu-Ilmu Pengetahuan Sosial Indonesia, 1(1), 355-363.

Lu, S. (2019). “Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP): Impact on the Integration of Textile and Apparel Supply Chain in the Asia-Pacific region”. In Fashion Supply Chain Management in Asia: Concepts, Models, and Cases (pp. 21-41). Springer, Singapore.

Sudsawasd, S. and Prasopchoke M. (2007). “Go with the Gang, ASEAN!” ASEAN Economic Bulletin, 2007 (3), 339-356.

Moenardy, D. F., Sutantri, S., Roespinoedji, D., & Saudi, M. (2021). “Indonesia's Strategy in Facing the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP)”, Turkish Journal of Computer and Mathematics Education (TURCOMAT), 12(13), 6235-6243.

Mueller, L. M. (2019). “ASEAN Centrality Under Threat–The Cases of RCEP and Connectivity”. Journal of Contemporary East Asia Studies, 8(2), 177-198.

Nabi, T., & Kaur, T. P. (2019). “Export Specialization of India with Top Five Agricultural Economies: An application of RCA and RSCA”, International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering, 8 (12), 4705- 4708.

Park, S. C. (2017a). “Can Trade Help Overcome Economic Crisis? Implications for Northeast Asia Creating Regional FTA between Korea, China, and Japan and Mega FTAs such as RCEP and TPP”, International Organizations Research Journal, 12(2), 104-128.

Park, S. C. (2017b). “RCEP versus TPP with the Trump Administration in the USA and Implications for East Asian Economic Cooperation”, Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 5(4), 135-152.

Pitakdumrongkit, K. (2019). “RCEP: The Deal That Must Not Fail”.

Rupal, V. 2020. ”India’s Exit From The Rcep: Why And What’s Next”.

Sarma, N. (2020). “Free Trade after RCEP: What Next for India?” ORF Issue Brief, (353).

Shimizu, K. (2021). “The ASEAN Economic Community and the RCEP in the world economy”, Journal of Contemporary East Asia Studies, 10(1), 1-23.

Terada, T. (2018). “RCEP Negotiations and the Implications for the United States”, The National Bureau of Asian Research, 20.

The ASEAN Secretariat. (2020). Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement.

Vahalik, B. (2014). “Regional Bilateral Trade Analysis of the European Union, China, and ASEAN”. Procedia Economics and Finance, 2014 (12), 709-717.

Vogiatzoglou, K., & Nguyen, P. N. T. (2016). Economic Openness and Economic Growth: A Cointegration Analysis for ASEAN-5 Countries. The European Journal of Applied Economics, 13(2), 10-20.

Widodo, T. (2008a). “Dynamic Changes in Comparative Advantage: Japan “Flying Geese” Model and Its Implications for China”, Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies, 2008 (3), 200-213.

Widodo, T. (2008b). “Shifts in Pattern of Specialization: Case Studies of India and China”. Gadjah Mada International Journal of Business, 2008 (10), 47-75.

Widodo, Tri. (2009a). “Dynamics and Convergence of Trade Specialization in East Asia”, The Asia Pacific Journal of Economics and Business, 2009 (38,1), 31-56.

Widodo, T. (2009b). “Dynamic Comparative Advantages in the ASEAN+3”. Journal of Economic Integration, 2009 (24,3), 505-529.

Widodo, T. (2010). “Comparative Advantage: Theory, Empirical Measures, and Case Studies”.

Wignaraja, G. (2018). “What Does Rcep Mean for Insiders and Outsiders? the Experience of India and Sri Lanka”, Artnet Working Paper Series, No. 181.

World Bank. (2004). Global Economic Prospects 2005: Trade, Regionalism, and Development, World Bank.

World Trade Organization. (2016). ‘Developing Economies’ Participation in World Trade’, World Trade Statistical Review 2016, WTO.

WTO. (2019). ‘Regional Trade Agreements Database’, WTO OMC, .


Article Metrics

Abstract view : 100 times
PDF - 77 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.