Voicing Philippines and Indonesian Students' Needs of Automated Written Corrective Feedback in EFL Writing Classrooms

Rozanah Katrina Herda, Regine Aguilar Principe, Arnel S. Travero, Muhammad Fadhly Pratama Harahap, Salma Viantika, Mohammad Arif Hamidi


In EFL writing classrooms, students learning L2 need correction or feedback for their writing. However, the teachers' limitation in time management becomes one of the reasons students can not gain detailed feedback. In line with that, the growth of the digital platform in the 21st-century learning era brings a thought that corrective feedback for L2 writing can be accessed and gained through automated written corrective feedback (AWCF) to ease students' learning and improve their writing ability. This quantitative study aimed at revealing students' need for automated written corrective feedback. The participants of this study were 532 students from the Philippines and Indonesia. The questionnaire was used to collect data and analyzed using the SPSS version 25 to know the percentage and descriptive statistics. The study's findings revealed that students from two states need technology tools to provide written corrective feedback to improve their writing proficiency in the L2 context while solving their problems of vocabulary and grammar limitations. Furthermore, the feedback can grow their confidence to provide L2 writing. The findings of the student's needs can be used as the basis for creating ideal writing scenarios.

Full Text:



Adiwijaya, P. A., Purnami, N. M. A., & Arsana, I. W. S. (2019). Perception and obstacles of college students in writing. Yavana Bhasha: Journal of English Language Education, 2(2), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.25078/yb.v2i2.1008.

Asrifan, A., Zita, C. T., Abd Al-Lateef, G. T., Enriquez, A. A., Muthmainnah, M., & Al-Matari, A. S. (2023). The Students' Motivation and Achievement in Learning English: The Correlational Study. JELITA: Journal of Education, Language Innovation, and Applied Linguistics, 2(2), 61-71. https://doi.org/10.37058/jelita.v2i2.6589.

Aniuranti, A., Tsani, M. H. N., & Wulandari, Y. (2023). Teaching English Grammar and Maintaining Students' Learning Motivation through Humour Stories. Scope: Journal of English Language Teaching, 7(2), 150-156. http://dx.doi.org/10.30998/scope.v7i2.14770.

Bahari, A. (2022). Teacher identity in technology-assisted language learning: Challenges and affordances. E-Learning and Digital Media, 19(4), 396-420.

Barrot, J. S. (2023). Using automated written corrective feedback in the writing classrooms: Effects on L2 writing accuracy. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 36(4), 584-607. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2021.1936071

Crossley, S. A. (2020). Linguistic features in writing quality and development: An overview. Journal of Writing Research, 11(3), 415-443.

Fraenkel, J. R. et al. (2022). How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education (7th ed.). McGraw-Hill.

Friedman, D. A. (2023). Language socialization and academic discourse in English as a Foreign Language contexts: A research agenda. Language Teaching, 56(2), 261-275.

Gay, L. R., Mills, G. E., & Airaisan, P. W. (2012). Educational Research: Competencies for Analysis and Applications (10th ed.). Pearson.

Gonzalez-Torres, P., Cabrera-Solano, P., & Castillo-Cuesta, L. (2022). Exploring Perceptions of Online Feedback in Teaching EFL Speaking and Writing Skills during the COVID-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 21(7), 330–344. https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.21.7.17.

Guo, Q., Feng, R., & Hua, Y. (2022). How effectively can EFL students use automated written corrective feedback (AWCF) in research writing?. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 35(9), 2312-2331. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2021.1879161.

Hardiyanti, R. L. P., & Herda, R. K. (2023). Teaching vocabulary using flash cards in Indonesian ESP Classroom: A one-shot case study. JELITA: Journal of Education, Language Innovation, and Applied Linguistics, 2(1), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.37058/jelita.v2i1.6466.

Herda, R. K., Widyastuti, I., Castro, M. C. S. A., & Damayanto, A. (2022). Going beyond the EFL teachers' beliefs on authentic assessment: Reframing the five-dimensional approach. Tamansiswa International Journal in Education and Science (TIJES), 4(1), 1-19. https://doi.org/10.30738/tijes.v4i1.13346.

Hunston, S. (2002). Evaluation and organization in a sample of written academic discourse. In Advances in written text analysis (pp. 205-232). Routledge.

Kumayas, T., & Lengkoan, F. (2023). The Challenges of Teaching Grammar at the University Level: Learning From the Experience of English Lecturer. Journal of English Culture, Language, Literature and Education, 11(1), 98-105. https://doi.org/10.53682/eclue.v11i1.6058

Lin, L. H. F. (2023). Assessing the role of vocabulary knowledge in developing EFL learners' writing skills: Implications for intentional and incidental vocabulary learning. Asian Journal of English Language Teaching, 32(1), 105-130.

Maulani, D. S., Friatin, L. Y., & Rachmawati, E. (2022). Voicing The Students’ Need of English Vocabulary English for Specific Purposes in Vocational High School. JELITA: Journal of Education, Language Innovation, and Applied Linguistics, 1(1), 56-66. https://doi.org/10.37058/jelita.v1i1.4440.

Nallaya, S., Hobson, J. E., & Ulpen, T. (2022). An investigation of first year university students' confidence in using academic literacies. Issues in Educational Research, 32(1), 264-291.

Nelson, N., & King, J. R. (2023). Discourse synthesis: Textual transformations in writing from sources. Reading and Writing, 36(4), 769-808.

Pimentel, J. L. (2010). A note on the usage of Likert Scaling for research data analysis. USM R&D Journal, 18(2), 109-112.

Radhakrishna, R. B. (2007). Tips for developing and testing questionnaires/instruments. The Journal of Extension, 45(1), 25.

Rashid, M. H., Ye, T., Hui, W., Li, W., & Shunting, W. (2022). Analyse and challenges of teaching writing among the English teachers. Linguistics and Culture Review, 6(S2), 199-209. https://doi.org/10.21744/lingcure.v6nS2.2004.

Saeed, M. A., & Al Qunayeer, H. S. (2022). Exploring teacher interactive e-feedback on students' writing through Google Docs: factors promoting interactivity and potential for learning. The Language Learning Journal, 50(3), 360-377.

Sprouse, J. (2007). A program for experimental syntax: Finding the relationship between acceptability and grammatical knowledge. University of Maryland, College Park.

Sugiyono. (2009). Metode Penelitian Kuantitatif, Kualitatif, dan R&D. Bandung: Alfabeta.

Suzuki, W., Nassaji, H., & Sato, K. (2019). The effects of feedback explicitness and type of target structure on accuracy in revision and new pieces of writing. System, 81, 135-145. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2018.12.017.

Taherdoost, H. (2016). Validity and reliability of the research instrument; how to test the validation of a questionnaire/survey in a research. How to test the validation of a questionnaire/survey in a research (August 10, 2016). http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3205040.

Toba, R., & Noor, W. N. (2019). The current issues of Indonesian EFL students' writing skills: Ability, problem, and reason in writing comparison and contrast essay. Dinamika Ilmu, 19(1), 57-73.

Vickers, C. H., & Ene, E. (2006). Grammatical accuracy and learner autonomy in advanced writing. ELT journal, 60(2), 109-116. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/cci097.

Widoyoko, E. S. (2012). Teknik Penyusunan Instrumen Penelitian. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.

Wulandari, Y. (2022). Effective Feedback to Improve Students' Writing Skills. English Education, Linguistics, and Literature Journal, 1(1).

Zou, D., & Xie, H. (2019). Flipping an English writing class with technology-enhanced just-in-time teaching and peer instruction. Interactive Learning Environments, 27(8), 1127-1142. https://doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2018.1495654.

Zou, G., Zou, L., & Qiu, S. F. (2023). Parametric and nonparametric methods for confidence intervals and sample size planning for win probability in parallel‐group randomized trials with Likert item and Likert scale data. Pharmaceutical Statistics, 22(3), 418-439. https://doi.org/10.1002/pst.2280.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.37058/jelita.v3i1.8920


  • There are currently no refbacks.