Review: asam bongkrek, toksin bakteri dari tempe bongkrek

Mufti Ghaffar



In Indonesia tempe bongkrek has been known to cause poisoning, and extraordinary incidents have occurred as a result of its consumption. The toxin that comes from tempe is bongkrekic acid. The purpose of writing this article is to summarize what is known about bongkrekic acid, its sources, production, poisoning, and prevention of exposure to bongkrekic acid. Tempe bongkrek can cause food poisoning caused by bongkrekic acid. Bongkrekic acid is a mitochondrial toxic compound produced by the bacterium Burkholderia gladioli pathovar cocovenenans. B. Gladioli produce the toxic compounds toxoflavin and bongkrekic acid. Bongkrekic acid contamination usually occurs when coconut-based food products, such as tempe bongkrek, are prepared under unhygienic conditions or stored improperly. Bongkrekic acid is very toxic and can cause poisoning in humans and animals. Intoxication caused by consuming contaminated tempe bongkrek can occur very quickly within 1-10 hours. This acid primarily affects the liver, causing liver damage, organ failure, and often leading to death. Prevention can use calincing leaves, adding NaCL, and drying.

Keywords: bacterial toxin, bongkrekik acid, foodborne, tempe bongkrek



Di Indonesia tempe bongkrek telah diketahui dapat menyebabkan keracunan, dan telah terjadi kejadian luar biasa akibat pengonsumsiannya. Toksin yang berasal dari tempe ini adalah asam bongkrek. Tujuan penulisan artikel ini adalah merangkum apa yang telah diketahui mengenai asam bongkrek, sumber, produksi, keracunan, dan pencegahan terpapar asam bongkrek. Tempe bongkrek dapat menyebabkan keracunan makanan yang disebabkan oleh asam bongkrek. Asam bongkrek merupakan salah satu senyawa toksik mitokondrial yang dihasilkan oleh bakteri Burkholderia gladioli pathovar cocovenenans. B. Gladioli menghasilkan senyawa beracun toksoflavin dan asam bongkrek. Kontaminasi asam bongkrek biasanya terjadi saat produk makanan berbasis kelapa, seperti tempe bongkrek, disiapkan dalam kondisi tidak higienis atau disimpan secara tidak tepat. Asam bongkrek sangat beracun dan dapat menyebabkan keracunan pada manusia dan hewan. Intoksikasi yang disebabkan mengonsumsi tempe bongkrek terkontaminasi dapat terjadi sangat cepat dalam kurun waktu 1-10 jam. Asam ini terutama mempengaruhi hati, menyebabkan kerusakan hati, kegagalan organ, dan seringkali berujung pada kematian. Pencegahan dapat menggunakan daun calincing, penambahan NaCL, dan pengeringan.


Kata kunci: asam bongkrek, penyakit bawaan makanan, tempe bongkrek, toksin bakteri


bacterial toxin, bongkrekik acid, foodborne, tempe bongkre

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